Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Europe and the Suez Crisis 1956 Essay

How much was the military activity attempted by the British and French in the Suez Crisis 1956 extremely essential? This recorded examination looks to assess and think about the variables impacting the connections and conversations among France and Britain during the Suez Crisis and accordingly incited them to submit military power to the area. The mainbody will take a gander at the distinctions and similitudes in Britain’s and France’s goals in the Middle East, the inside circumstance (predominantly in Britain), Nasser㠯⠿â ½s activities, general conclusion in Western Europe just as American and UN approaches on the emergency. So as to complete his examination an assortment of sources will be counseled essential and optional, from which pertinent data will be chosen. Carlton㠯⠿â ½s â€Å"Britain and the Suez Crisis† and Thomas â€Å"The Suez Affair† will be of specific use. The sources utilized dependability (date of distribution, creator and so on) will be examined. An examination of the primary contentions of the creators just as an assessment of various v erifiable understandings will be completed. B. Rundown of proof At the point when Britain and France dropped the advances to the Egyptian president, Nasser’s hydropower venture, the Aswan dam, Nasser reacted by nationalizing the Suez Canal Company on the 26th of July 1956. Data given in the book â€Å"The Suez Affair† discloses to us that the organization was to a great extent possessed by British and French shareholders.1 England and France considered the To be nationalization as an infringement of global law and expected this could make an intensity of vacuum, which could be filled by the Soviets, who were their socialist foe vulnerable War. Alongside this, the nationalization of the channel straightforwardly compromised British and French impacts in the region, which was rich on oilsupplies and made sure about Britain’s approach to India. In a letter to the US President in September 1958, the British Prime Minister Eden composed: â€Å"†¦We should in the principal occurrence to offer the most extreme political weight as a powerful influence for Egypt†¦ (yet) my associates and I are persuaded that we should be prepared, in the final hotel, to utilize power to carry Nasser to his detects. † 2 In â€Å"Mastering Modern World History† it is uncovered that a mystery Anglo-American arrangement called Omega recommended to oust Nasser by utilizing political and monetary pressure3. Regardless of this arrangement, the issue of utilizing military power in Egypt stayed a consuming issue among the British Conservatives. As indicated by Carlton, the British Cabinet, seemed separated on the matter of â€Å"straight bash† on the Canal issue by early September.4 The popular feeling was firmly ace military activities and considered Nasser another Hitler.5 The French Minister Mollet, didn't endeavor to keep in great terms with any Arab, whom he felt doubt towards, and was to be a solid supporter of the choice to utilize military power. They accepted that the cash of the Algerian agitators, which they battled against, originated from Cairo. Both the French and the British related Nasser㠯⠿â ½s nationalization of the Canal with recorded analogies, which was not going to be rehashed: Hitler㠯⠿â ½s control of The Rhineland just as his take over of Czechoslovakia. The US-president, Eisenhower, emphatically communicated his antagonistic vibe on the matter of powers being utilized in Egypt. As indicated by Peter L. Hahn, Eisenhower saw Nasser as a peril of Western danger however accepted that power just would encourage Soviet invasion in the region.6 So the Americans proposed a relationship of trench clients, the SCUA, when it was uncovered that the British and French attempted to look for endorsement in the UN, where their activities could be defended because of the Soviet veto. The British accepted the SCUA, yet its effect on Nasser was bound to be unimportant. With the finish of the SCUA Conference, French and British Ministers, occupied with exchanges with their Egyptian partner and consented to the Six Principles7 (see Appendix). In spite of the fact that this appeared to propose a quiet settlement, French and British military arrangements to attack Egypt proceeded. On 24 October the British and the French Foreign Ministers held a mystery meeting with the Israeli Prime Minister who was resolved to drive Egypt to perceive the province of Israel. Five days after this gathering, Israeli powers attacked Egypt. At the point when Egypt would not pull back from the Suez Canal, British and French besieged Egyptian runways and landed soldiers at Port Said. The British-French assault on Egypt was welcomed with furious fights everywhere throughout the world. As indicated by Keith Robbin, the UN collectively denounced the Franco-British activity on second November8 At last, the UN announced truce on November 6 and British and French powers pulled back. C. Assessment of sources â€Å"The Suez Affair† was distributed in 1966 (most recent release distributed in 1986), and was composed by Hugh Thomas who left the British Government after the Suez Crisis. Thomas expressed reason for this book is that â€Å"It is a between time Report.†9 in which he has utilized materials accessible and talked with individuals, for the most part British, engaged with the Crisis. The estimation of this book is that it is a point by point and interesting portrayal of the British government’s treatment of the Crisis, expertly described by Thomas who himself encountered the Suez Crisis has an understanding in the inner circumstance in Britain during this timeframe. In any case, this may likewise make the source one-sided as it is a lot of composed from a British viewpoint. This strategy has certain confinements as recollections can adjust and are not solid. David Carlton, who likewise has composed a reference index about Anthony Eden, distributed â€Å"Britain and the Suez Crisis† in 1988. The book is focused on students; school understudies and other keen on post war British history. The motivation behind the book is to advise individuals about the ongoing past, so as to forestall late political inculcation. In spite of the fact that it is recognized in the introduction that there are issues of inclination, subjectivity and points of view in contemplating the past, the benefit of perusing history â€Å"outweigh the drawbacks†10. Carlton㠯⠿â ½s book is undeniably more logical than Thomas㠯⠿â ½ and incorporates distinctive recorded understandings of the Crisis, which is of convenience when considering the emergency from a more extensive viewpoint. Be that as it may, Carlton㠯⠿â ½s book may be very one-sided as it is a lot of composed from a British point of view. Albeit both Carlton㠯⠿â ½s and Thomas㠯⠿â ½s books are British, they present an alternate perspective on the Suez Crisis, presumably because of the diverse date of distribution of the sources first release. Despite the fact that Thomas changed a few pieces of the book in his most recent release, the most generous pieces of his book, depend on sources accessible when the judgment of the military activity after the emergency made the publicity betray the British and French. In Carlton case, he has utilized materials discharged during the 80s, which appear to be more amicable towards he British and the French. By taking the two sources in account they disclose to us how the historical backdrop of the Suez Crisis has been reshaped because of political contention and purposeful publicity. D. Examination In the event that the Suez issue could have been fathomed in a progressively conciliatory manner, British and French esteem during the Cold War would without a doubt have been all the more well after the emergency. As indicated by the American columnist Donald Neff the Suez Crisis was a â€Å"hinge point in history† as it ruined France and Britain as participators neglected War: it stressed the Anglo-American partnership, heightened Egyptian patriotism and expanded Soviet impacts in the district. Alongside that, the consideration was driven away from the Hungary uprising, for the Soviets advantage, as the shadow of Europe fell over the Suez. Hugh Thomas presents a view in his book â€Å"The Suez Affair† that the French and the British at first were resolved to utilize military power in Egypt. He proposes that they acted in a crafty manner: Nasser’s nationalization of the Suez Crisis allowed them the chance to legitimize the utilization of military power. He recommends that the British and the French had solid aims in the Middle East and to weld whatever number nations of the region as could be allowed into an anticommunist barrier agreement. This can somewhat be valid, as the Suez Crisis was an occasion neglected War, when the British and French vote based systems attempted to, along with America, contain the extending Communist alliance. In any case, other potential understandings of the Crisis and the British and French expectations repudiate this view. The history specialist Lowe presents proof of the Omega plan, which recommends that Britain planned to dispose of Nasser by progressively quiet methods. Other proof additionally bolsters this view. For instance Eden, as cited in segment B, needed to utilize military force as just â€Å"a last resort.† As we can see from the proof given, the Americans attempted to seek after a progressively serene strategy in Suez. The Six Principles, just as the acknowledgment of the SCUA, gave indications that the British were moving toward a serene settlement, on America’s activity which, maybe, could have spared them from a worldwide annihilation. In any case, one can contend that these discretionary exchanges can be viewed as drawing out the procedure so as to persuade America to acknowledge the utilization of military power. They were not genuine but rather only a veneer, which secured the aggressor expectations of Britain and France. The more contemporary view proposes various conditions drew Eden take the deadly choice to utilize military power. â€Å"Eden was confronted with remarkable weights (†¦).† 11. As indicated by Carlton, the scheme among France and Israel was not so much in the possession of Eden. â€Å"

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Race vs. Ethnicity Essay

If we somehow happened to go out on the avenues today and ask â€Å"what is the contrast among race and ethnicity?†, the vast majority would most likely answer â€Å"I don’t know† or â€Å" They are the equivalent thing†. One of the most befuddled ideas of characterizing each other is the recognizing of race and ethnicity. Previously, individuals either thought one was the other or there was basically no distinction. Naming individuals on the planet is frequently managed without appropriate information and can prompt creation a misleading incrimination or culpable somebody. Race is related with one’s organic predecessors, for example, your physical appearance. While ethnicity is the personality with individuals who share comparable social custom. Ethnicity and race are diverse from multiple points of view yet are still regularly befuddled by numerous individuals today. First and foremost ethnicity manages one’s social foundation while race manages a progressively hereditary foundation. Geographers study where and why of ethnicity and its areas. Geographers likewise study where and why individuals of various races live where they are. Another contrast between the two is that ethnicity isn’t as simple to tell by simply taking a gander at somebody. Be that as it may, on the off chance that you saw somebody to decide their race you could simply tell by their skin shading. Let's assume you put a Caucasian male from Canada, Germany, America, and Ireland together in a line; it would be hard to recognize which one from which. Be that as it may, you can without much of a stretch confirm that all the guys are Caucasian. Ethnic gatherings normally look to characterize themselves by their language, customs, and religion; while race is generally characterized by skin shading. Characterizing individuals through race for the most part prompts preference and bigotry, the conviction of one’s race is of prevalence than all the others. It is favored by a great many people to be distinguished through their ethnicity, since it speaks to their way of life and doesn’t can possibly be hostile. Taking everything into account, race and ethnicity are particularly unique yet are befuddled among the vast majority of the world. Race is dictated by skin shading and physical traits went down from progenitors. Ethnicity is relating to your social foundation including language, religion, and conventions. It is smarter to recognize individuals through their ethnicities rather than their race to maintain a strategic distance from offense. A great many people don't have the foggiest idea about the contrast between the two or think they are the equivalent. Ethnicity and race interface in a manner with one another, yet they are and will consistently be particular to each other.

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

A Few Lessons from FLL

A Few Lessons from FLL Spring is the season when students across the country are making choices: high school seniors are choosing where they are going to college (we just finished hosting Campus Preview Weekend to help our admitted students make their decision), high school juniors are choosing where they might want to apply to college, and high school freshmen and sophomores (and even my sixth grade daughter!) are choosing what classes to take next year. So this time of year I am asked all the time for advice on what choices students should make to help their chances of coming to MIT. As I recently wrote in an op-ed piece for the higher ed website Inside Higher Ed, the best thing a student can do is whatever will advance his or her personal growth and genuine enthusiasm for learning. In the piece I cite the FIRST robotics competition as one of many excellent and worthwhile activities a student might do. While many MIT students have participated in FIRST, last year I had the good fortune of experiencing FIRST through the eyes of my daughter, who was on a FIRST Lego League (FLL) team. And, as I am gearing up to head to St. Louis for the FIRST World Championships in a few days, I thought I would share a bit of my experience with the program. (Actually, my first experience with a FIRST-like program was in Woodie Flowers’ 2.70 design class at MIT â€" a story for another day.) The FLL program is the elementary and middle school version of the FIRST robotics competition. There are two elements to the program: a robotics competition and a project where the team identifies and develops a solution to a real world problem. Each year there is a theme to the robot game and the project. Last year’s theme, “Food Factor,” explored food safety and the challenge of keeping food from spoiling. But here is the key reason that I found FLL so valuable: the robot game and the project are overlaid with a third, arguably more important, element: the FLL Core Values. These core values, such as teamwork, discovery, and the notion that your competitors are really your collaborators, are the real insight into this program. Teams get evaluated based on how well they live these core values. You get judged not only on how many points your robot scores during the tournament and how good a solution you develop for the project, but also on your process â€" the teamwork, intentions, and values that you bring to it. How accepting was the group to different ideas? Did all members contribute? Were your mentors appropriately involved (i.e., guiding, but not doing)? And so the winning teams are not necessarily the ones that have the highest scoring robots or the most elegant designs (although these are good things). The process, intentions, attitudes, etc. â€" all the good stuff that allows teams to succeed and sets young people up for success in life â€" is what is judged and what is rewarded. As every engineer knows, you get what you measure, and as every parent knows, you get what you reward. The key is to measure and reward the outcomes you want. And FIRST is doing exactly that. Imagine if sports championships were won not only based on how many points you scored, but by how well your team worked together and solved problems, and how much you respected and even assisted your opponents? My daughter’s team learned an enormous amount about how to design and program a robot. They learned that by jumping in and trying things, you can learn to do something that just weeks before seemed impossibly hard. They learned how to build things that wouldn’t break (by building things that did), that it is actually good to change your direction once you realize it needs to change (by hanging on too long and then panicking), that getting ideas from others on the team actually didn’t mess everything up, and they learned to focus, ultimately building a robot that did a few tasks well rather then one that did many not so well. They also learned a lot about food safety. They learned that it is not so easy to keep food from spoiling. They learned to do research before identifying a problem to solve. They learned how to brainstorm possible solutions, and then compromise to agree on one to focus. And they learned that everyone had something unique they could contribute to the solution (including a team member who contributed his ventriloquism skills to the presentation!). What is clear is that the learning that takes place in FIRST is not abstract: it is real and accessible. Indeed, it is not only real, it is aligned with what we want student to learn. Programs like FIRST get students excited about working together, emphasizing that competition is more valuable when it is not about beating your opponent but when it is used to lift everyone up. This is exactly the type of experience our students need to be prepared to meet the challenges that the world faces.

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Controversial Issue of the Keystone XL Pipeline

The Keystone XL Pipeline has been a major controversial issue in the news lately regarding the expansion of a pipeline from Alberta, Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. This pipeline will cross six states including Montana, Nebraska, Kansas, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Texas. This pipeline will transport 830,000 barrels of crude tar sands oil to the United States. Despite the immediately benefits for the economy with the installation, the decision is to decline the Keystone XL Pipeline proposal. This decision is based mainly on two factors: the environment and the economy in the long run. One of the main objections to the Keystone XL Pipeline is the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) it will release. James Hansen, one of the most-respected climate scientists at NASA, said, â€Å"The tar sands of Canada constitute a deadly threat to our planet.† He explains that producing oil from tar sands result two-to-three times GHG than conventional oil. It is projected that during the construction period 0.24 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMTCO2e) will be released per year. During operations, â€Å"1.44 MMTCO2e would be emitted per year...The total lifecycle emissions associated with production, refining, and combustion of 830,000 barrels per day of oil sands crude will release 147 to 168 MMTCO2e per year.† These numbers add up to a potential increase of 200 parts per million (ppm) in the atmosphere. According to Hansen, the safe level of GHG in the atmosphere is 350 ppm, andShow MoreRelatedKeystone Xl Pipeline1429 Words   |  6 PagesKeyston e XL Pipeline A proposed oil pipeline project will have the capacity to transport thounsands of barrels of crude oil to refineries in Oklahoma, Illinois, and the Gulf Coast of Texas. The Keystone XL is a 1,711-mile pipeline delivering Canadian crude oil to United States oil markets. This project is a response to the market demand for heavy crude oil in the Unites States. The pipeline will also be used to transport crude oil to the Cushing tank farm in the Midwest region. Many refineriesRead MoreThe Keystone Xl Pipeline Is A Proposed 1, 1798 Mile Pipeline1670 Words   |  7 PagesThe Keystone XL Pipeline is a proposed 1, 1798 mile pipeline that begins in Hardisty, Canada and runs to Steele City , Nebraska. It is designed to carry up to 830,00 barrels of petroleum per day. The Canadian company TransCanada initially proposed the pipeline in 2005 and applied to the State Department for a construction permit in 2008. There would be 329 miles of pipeline in Canada and 840 miles of pipeline in the Un ited States. Then, once the pipeline reaches Nebraska, it would connect to anRead MoreThe Keystone Xl Pipeline Is A Proposed 1179 Mile Pipeline Essay807 Words   |  4 Pages The Keystone XL pipeline is a proposed 1,179-mile pipeline that would travel from the oil sands of Alberta, Canada, southeast to Steele City, Nebraska, where it would connect with a preexisting pipe. The pipeline would transport 830,000 barrels of oil daily, which is around 50% more oil per day than is currently transported from Canada. Supporters say that it will create thousands of jobs and reduce the United States’ dependence on foreign oil. 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There are two sides to this issue, to either approve or disapprove theRead MoreAnalysis Of Transcanadas Proposed Keystone Xl Pipeline1342 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction TransCanada’s proposed Keystone XL pipeline would move oil sands from Canada and shale oil produced in North Dakota and Montana to Nebraska for further delivery to the Gulf Coast where many refineries are located. This pipeline would be 875 miles of 36-inch pipe with the capacity to transport 830,000 barrels per day. Since the pipeline would cross the US border from Canada to the United States, the pipeline requires a Presidential permit from the state department. This decision isRead MoreThe Keystone Xl Is A Controversial Oil Pipeline Extension2193 Words   |  9 PagesAbstract The Keystone XL is a controversial oil pipeline extension that would travel from Alberta, Canada, to the United States Gulf Coast. The Keystone XL should not be built because of the damage it would cause to the environment. The oil would be found within tar sands that contain bitumen. The process of extracting the crude oil uses a lot of energy and causes a large amount of greenhouse gases. Many citizens, in Canada and the United States, are outraged because it can be detrimental toRead MoreThe Alberta Tar Sands: Factors Affecting Extraction and Production of Fossil Fuels1290 Words   |  5 PagesAlberta Tar Sands have been a contentious issue in recent years. Although the tar sands is estimated to be one of the Earths biggest reserves of fossil fuels, the extraction of these resources is known to cause a variety of social and ecological problems. The extraction process itself is inefficient and the pipeline that has been proposed is subject to many environmental risks. Portions of the pipeline have already been approved and the construction of the pipeline is already begun in some areas. ThisRead MorePlanning For The Future : The Keystone Xl Pipeline2058 Words   |  9 PagesThe Keystone XL Pipeline Mahatma Gandhi once said, â€Å"Earth provides enough to satisfy every man s needs, but not every man s greed† (Lindley). Even today, people in this world still desire many things much more than they actually need. Several occasions people have failed to take the time and think about the consequences their greeds would have on society. Since 2010, Canada and the United States have built a pipeline that travels through both countries. This pipeline, known as the Keystone Pipeline

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Gun Ownership Should Be Banned - 1512 Words

Gun ownership should be banned in order to reduce crime rates and ensure the protection of our nation’s people. Throughout the United States, gun control has become a controversial issue due to gun advocates strongly believing their 2nd Amendment rights guarantee them legal access to guns. Although gun advocates view gun ownership as self defense, the government and gun control supporters have noticed that legal distribution of guns has been linked to school shootings, homicide, and violent crimes. Furthermore, legal distribution of guns increases the risk of harming innocent people while declining the police’s power to establish safety in society. Overall, in order to prevent the destruction of our country, the people must work together to ban gun ownership and ratify the 2nd Amendment rights clarifying its purpose to the public. Gun ownership should be banned to reduce the 100,000 deaths of americans that are shot every year in the United States. Throughout Americaâ⠂¬â„¢s history, we have been known as the extremely gun violent country unfit to protect our citizens from danger. The television news reports continue to display the violent crimes and school shootings that has harmed innocent people especially children. When the government allows guns to be legal in the United States, they are giving people the responsibility to use this weapon for self defense purposes and recreational sport such as hunting. However, gun owners have been unable to handle this responsibilityShow MoreRelatedWhy Gun Ownership Should Not Be Banned1361 Words   |  6 PagesGun control has been an ongoing issue in the American way of life, even though gun ownership is a constitutional right of the American people. The issue dates back prior to the drafting of the United States Constitution. According to Thomas Jefferson, â€Å"Laws that forbid the carrying of arms, only disarm those who are neither inclined nor determined to commit crimes. 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Many arguments have been proposed over time about why civilians should, or should not be afforded the right to bear arms. What seems to be the most common modern opposition is that there is truly no need for civilians to own a gun, in this day and age. Many who oppose guns simply think less guns, less gun violenceRead MorePublic Ownership Of Handguns Should Be Banned1500 Words   |  6 PagesUnited States, private ownership of handguns ought to be banned. I AFFIRM the resolution that â€Å"In the United States, private ownership of handguns ought to be banned.† For clarification of today’s round, I offer the following definitions: Private Ownership - According to Collins Dictionary, private ownership is the fact of being owned by a private individual or organization, rather than by the state or a public body. Banned - Also, according to Collins Dictionary, Banned means to prohibit, officiallyRead MoreShould Gun Ownership Be A Right For All Citizens?999 Words   |  4 PagesShould gun ownership be a right for all citizens? Of the approximate 875 million firearms legally owned in the world, American citizens own one quarter of these. Our second amendment, â€Å"the right to bear arms†, establishes this right for us. While this accounts for legally obtained firearms, those obtained illegally far exceed these numbers. There is no way to establish how many firearms are illegally possessed. Banning guns in America would only affect law abiding citizens. Criminals and those whoRead MoreGuns And Their Effect On Gun Control962 Words   |  4 PagesGuns and the ability to use them have been under attack in the United States and many other places throughout the World. There are groups of people that believe that as long as we have the right to bear arms that many unprotected people will lose their lives due to gun violence. There are many trends that come with gun violence and where these mass shooting occur, but a main one is that when a place legally prohibits carrying a weapon then that is where the most gun violence happens. Where guns areRead MoreThe Argument Against Gun Control Essay1141 Words   |  5 PagesIn this paper, I consider the topic of gun control. First, I present Dixon’s argument in support of gun control, which is that all personal guns should be banned. Second, I introduce Huemer’s argument against the regulation of guns, which is that banning personal firearms is not justified. Third, I critique Huemer’s argument against gun control on the grounds of three claims. First, the right to own a gun is nullified by its negative repercussions. Second, gun control does not violate an individual’sRead MoreNo More Guns729 Words   |  3 PagesPaul Chung Transition English Four April 21, 2011 Essay No more Guns The year 1774 was pivotal in the history of the United States. It marked the beginning of the Revolutionary war, which lasted thirteen years and claimed thousands of lives. Fighting against the British, the Americans had to rely on individual citizens because they did not have a well organized army. As famers and hunters, many citizens already owned guns. These rifles proved indispensable in defeating the British. After theRead MoreAmerica Needs Gun Control Essay1149 Words   |  5 PagesFor years proposals for gun control and the ownership of firearms have been among the most controversial issues in modern American politics. The public debate over guns in the United States is often seen as having two side. Some people passionately assert that the Second Amendment protects an individuals right to own guns while others assert that the Second Amendment does no more than protect the right of states to maintain militias. There are many people who insist that the Constitution is a livin gRead MoreGuns And Gun Control855 Words   |  4 PagesThe rise in cases of gun violence and related incidences of assault has drawn the public to the issue of guns and gun control. Such has been evident within the spheres of politics especially with the last election period seeing the incumbent president Donald Trump suggesting on stringent gun control laws. However, despite the acknowledgment of the need to have better gun laws, much ground and consensus has never reached. Such, to an extent, contributed to the current lack of political goodwill within

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Roles of Women in the Early Europe Free Essays

In early, medieval Europe, everyday life and the duties of people were greatly different than they are today. Obviously, there was no technology and life was a lot simpler. However, some of the former ways of life are not always praised as something good. We will write a custom essay sample on Roles of Women in the Early Europe or any similar topic only for you Order Now For example, women during the time were treated very inadequately. Yes, this has happened in just about every society in history, but it seems like most women during this period were used and disrespected more notably than in others. In Philippa Gregory’s novel, The Other Boleyn Girl, this theme is seen greatly. In the story, the narrator, Mary, is defending her sister, Anne, after she is sentenced to death for producing an incest baby instead of a son for the king, King Henry. Mary, pleading for her sister, yells out â€Å"We did nothing more than that was ordered. We only ever did as we were commanded. Is she to die for being an obedient daughter? †(Pg. 650). During this time period, many women in the royal courts were used to produce male heirs, mainly to keep the name of the king and the family continuing. I strongly agree with the quote by Mary because killing a human being for a reason such as that is immoral and women are not just objects for men. In the story, Henry did have a choice to kill Anne or not, but I understood why he did end up taking her life. When Mary claims that the two Boleyn girls â€Å"did as they were commanded†, something drew to my attention. Mary was completely valid in saying that. Anne and Mary were mainly just used to birth a son. Several members of their family, including their uncle, demanded for one of them to bed the king. At first it was Mary who had an affair with the already married king. Even though Mary produces two children, one being a boy, it is not legitimate due to the fact that Mary is merely a mistress and not the queen. When he was done with Mary, King Henry moved on to Anne, who was more determined to become queen and have the child be legitimate. She eventually becomes the Queen of England, but it is proven that Henry was just using her for her child after he kills her. I do not agree with this concept by any means. However, this was a common role for women at the time. Kings and royal families were so concerned about keeping their name going in the court that they would risk the lives of women in doing so. You would think that one of King Henry’s seven wives would pick up on this trend at some point, or any woman in any court for that matter. It seems like women were treated as objects in the royal courts. The women were the croc pot that prepared the kings’ stew. And, if that stew was not one hundred percent correct, the croc pot would be set aside and replaced with a new one. I do not feel this is morally acceptable at all. I understand that kings wanted to have a male heir to keep the name going, but they should have had to complete that task so viciously. In this case, I do not agree with King Henry’s tactics at all, but I understand why he killed Anne. I believe that it was so common to banish or kill a wife for such crimes as adultery or incest that Henry had no choice, but to kill her. He was a very strong, determined man with a bold reputation for being so. By beheading Anne, he was retaining his reputation, but also proved that it was never true love between him and Anne. He had women lined up to take the place of Anne. â€Å"He is at her house every night. He is as he was in the old days, when it was her. † (656). This quote just proves the fact that Henry wanted nothing more of Anne than a son, which is a common theme of the roles of women during this time period. I do not agree with the concept of using women for the production of male heirs because it is immoral and women should not be viewed as objects. That is a major theme in The Other Boleyn Girl by Philippa Gregory. It is prevalent throughout the story and in history that King Henry of England used women as devices used to produce male heirs. This was also seen throughout history. Kings were so determined to keep their name going that they would execute their wives for such faults as not producing a boy, or in this case, birthing an incest baby. The kings had to maintain a strong reputation. I understand that, but do not agree with how they did so. How to cite Roles of Women in the Early Europe, Essay examples

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Pure Cinema free essay sample

Do you agree with Andre Bazin that Ladri de Biccilette is an example of ‘pure cinema’? (Bazin [1971] p. 60). To what extent is such a pure cinema possible and, in your opinion, which Italian Neo-realist film screened on the unit comes closest to it? Explain your reasoning. This essay will address the characteristics of ‘pure cinema’ and the extent of its practical nature. It also seeks to analyse the film Ladri de Biccilette whilst exploring the traits of pure cinema in this film. The definition of pure cinema refers to a cinema where real life is projected onto the screen in way that creates the illusion of reality. The more the aspects of a film are closer to real life, the purer the cinema it will be regarded. Pure cinema does not concern itself whether the audience is bored, shocked, thrilled or satisfied, and also would not care much how the scenes are interpreted. It seeks purely to reflect what is going on in reality, without intentionally altering or cutting parts out in order to manipulate a specific set of emotions from its audience. In perfect pure cinema, there is no lighting added to the scene and things are filmed as they were perceived before the existence of the camera in the scene. The location and settings, which are the most important defining aspect of pure cinema, are real places instead of studio-based scenes, and the director does not manipulate mise-en-scene, either. The events are just the ones of ordinary issues and dialogues are simple and do not necessarily follow a good grammar. In other words, there is no exaggeration nor dramatization of the events. Using real people instead of actors, and allowing them to act and speak freely with a small amount of direction, is another characteristic of pure cinema. The position of the camera is random and the camera usually films everything in a long-take and wide angle (like looking through a window). In pure cinema, the director has not got a firm script, which he has to follow step by step. Instead he tries to be receptive to the world around him and films everything and leaves it up to the audience to draw the meaning themselves. These are the essential characteristics of pure cinema, ut how many of these characteristics can be found in the film Ladri de Biccilette is what that will explored in the next paragraph. Ladri di Biccilette (Vitoria de Sica, 1948) is one of the films that started the wave of Neo-realist films in Italy. The core target of this film, like other neo-realist films, was mainly to reflect the life of the worker, which up this point in Italian history, had been ignored in their films. The social position of the victims in the Ladri di Biccilette, in which the actors are only placed to move the story forward, is what carries the main message of the film. The actual story of the film, as Bazin believes, is not even enough to fill a paragraph of a news article. In the opening scene of the film, a crowd of unemployed men are waiting to find out that there is only one job available. All the people used in this film are normal people whose real lives were similar to the one in the film. The role of the worker was played by somebody who was working in a factory nearby, while the role of the son was played by a boy who was found in the streets of Rome and a journalist played the role of the wife. There are no studio-based scenes and all the locations are real places in Rome, which is in itself of historical value with the documenting of the landscape of Rome, post World War II. Events in the film look quite random and accidental. For example, when the worker is reporting his bicycle stolen to the police officer, another officer, who is leaving the station with a group of soldiers, suddenly calls upon the first officer. The camera moves its focus from the worker and the police officer and his colleagues, in a way that looks random and accidental. Another good example of the accidental look of the film and the existence of a kind of dead time is the rain scene, in which the rain forces the worker and his son to take refuge at the front of a building. A group of German priests joins them and start to talk in German, which again felt very accidental. The camera films everybody until the rain stops without a single cut, contributing to this aspect of dead time. Ladri de Biccilette is a very successful film in creating natural and believable moments. While the worker and his son are off searching for the bicycle, there is moment where the child tries to urinate in street. This is an indication of profound realism, where even examples of the most private behaviour and dialogue are shared with the audience. The connection between the worker and his son is one of the most natural relationships existing in this film. Poverty almost closes the gap between the worker and his child, as the father does not have money and education to make him considerably superior. The family needs to send the young child to work and the worker needs his help and company to search for his bicycle. The dialogue between the father and son is like dialogue between two adults. The worker talks about their income and his strategies to attempt to improve their lives, while the son criticizes his dad when he created a situation which caused the old man to run away. The most important part of the film is the last scene, where local people catch the worker as he runs away with the stolen bicycle. The child witnesses everything and later when his dad realises what has happened, the son grabs the hand of his father. From this moment onwards, the worker does not have anything superior over his child, because his child, as Bazin (1971) says, has suddenly become an adult. There are many moments where the film fulfils its mission, as an Italian Neo-realist film, to screen the daily life of the worker, their sad and happy moments, struggles and times of relief, plus their values and beliefs. In the church scene, there are many layers of meaning skilfully constructed. The organisers of the church services are all wearing new and expensive clothes and very clearly show their superiority over the lay/ normal people, all of whom are wearing old and dirty clothes to the service. When the worker talks to an old man (who wanted to buy his stolen bicycle), one of the locals tells the worker that â€Å"talking is sinful†. It suggests that the organisers of the services are all quite well off and disconnected from the poors suffering, while they are there to celebrate their relative prosperity in life by being able to give food away to the community. The religion advertised by these people does not allow for complaint, as it is said that â€Å"talking is sinful†. In this scene, the worker represents a group of Italians who are poor, but their dignity stops them from accepting charity. In the scene where there is a long queue of people waiting to ride the bus, there are some women who we see roughly pushed onto the bus amongst men. This scene, just on its own, claims that in extreme poverty, gender-roles lose their function in society and differences between humans and animals are also diminished. Not everything in this film has the character of pure cinema. In a few places, music is used to create a dramatic effect and imposes a particular state of emotion on the viewer. For example; the scene when the worker and his wife are carrying buckets of water into their home would not have the same dramatic effects without music. The camera position in this film, unlike the character of pure cinema which suggests a much more random and accidental placement, seems more carefully placed to effect a particular meaning. In the scene where the worker is waiting to get his newly-purchased bicycle, the camera, as the POV of the worker, films the man who is climbing the shelves to put their bed sheets in its place. This shot, for example, is very cleverly designed to convey the escalation of poverty. Another shot which suggests that the director is manipulating the camera position, and in some places the mise-en-scene, is where the worker and his friends are walking past the film posters. This shot helps considerably to create a contrast between reality and what is on the movies. I do not see Ladri di Biccilette as a perfect example of pure cinema, but I would partially agree with Basin’s statement that this film is one the first examples of pure cinema. This film certainly has many of the characteristics of pure cinema, but also has many of those belonging to artistic cinema. Bazin (1971) claims that in this film there are â€Å"no more actors, no more story, no more sets†, but I believe by using non-actors in a film, you can guarantee that there is no acting in a film. There are a lot of people who have never been trained to become actors but who have an absolutely natural talent as actors. In this film, the lead actor was clearly was a natural actor in that he was able to become frustrated, angry, cry and joke in front of camera. As I explained earlier in my essay, the camera position is also manipulated in order to convey particular meanings, as well as mises-en-scene in some places. Pure cinema , in my view, suggests something perfect and a perfect thing does not exist. Filmmakers can only try to create a film closer to â€Å"reality†.